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Friday, 04 October 2013 15:29

About Telugu Language

Introduction

Swaagatam - Welcome

Telugu (తెలుగు) belongs to the South Central branch of the Dravidian language family. It is spoken by close to 70 million people in India, primarily in the state of Andhra Pradesh. It is also spoken in Bahrain, Fiji, Malaysia, Mauritius, United States, Singapore, United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates. The Telugu-speaking population of the world, including second languages speakers, is estimated to be Southern India maparound 75 million people (Ethnologue).

Status

Telugu is one of the 22 official languages and 14 regional languages of India. It is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh. It also has official language status in the Yanam District of the Union Territory of Pondicherry.

Although Telugu is the dominant language in Andhra Pradesh, the state also has sizable populations of speakers of KannadaMarathiOriya, and Tamil. Telugu has not achieved universal acceptance as a lingua franca in the state due to a variety of reasons, including lack of teachers, confusion between classical and colloquial standards, and the dominant role of English among the educated elite, and its role as the exclusive medium of post-secondary education.

Dialects

Spoken vs. written
There is a considerable difference between the spoken and written forms of Telugu. Spoken Telugu has many regional dialects, while the written form remains relatively uniform. Until the 20th century, Telugu was written in an archaic style very different from the everyday spoken language. During the second half of the 20th century, a new written standard emerged based on the modern spoken language.

Regional
Telugu has many regional dialects which are usually divided into several major groups:

  • East, including Srikakulam and Visakhapatnam
  • South, including Nellore, Ongole, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Chittoor and Anantapur
  • North, including nine different varieties
  • Central, including Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari.

Standard Telugu is based on the speech of educated speakers of the Central dialect.

Social
Colloquial Telugu varies depending on social status. Thus, urban varieties of Telugu as spoken, for instance, in Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh, and used in popular movies, have many borrowings from HindiUrdu, and English. The speech of educated speakers is characterized by code-switching between Telugu and English. There are also a number of social varieties depending on caste or class. The language of the high castes is more influenced by Sanskrit than the language of the lower castes. There are several distinct social dialects— Brahmin, non-Brahmin, and Untouchable.

Structure

Sound system
The sound system of Telugu has many similarities to the sound systems of other Dravidian languages.

Vowels

  • Telugu has 2 sets of 5 vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that make a difference in word meaning. Each set consists of one short and one long vowel. Vowel length distinguishes between otherwise identical words. In the table below, vowel length is indicated by a macron over the vowel.
  • There are two diphthongs /ai/ and /au/.
  • Telugu is characterized by vowel harmony which requires that the vowels in suffixes be the same as root vowels, i.e., all front or all back.
 
Close
i, ī
 
u, ū
Close-mid
e, ē
 
o, ō
Open  
a, ā
 

Consonants
The consonant system of Telugu is similar to that of other Dravidian languages. It is characterized by the following features:

  • a contrast between plain and aspirated stops, both voiceless and voiced, e.g., /p – pʰ, b – bʰ/. Aspirated stops are produced with a strong puff of air accompanying their release.
  • a contrast between apical and retroflex consonants, e.g., /t/ – /ʈ/. Apical consonants are produced with the tip of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth, whereas retroflex consonants are produced with the tongue curled, so that its underside comes in contact with the roof of the mouth;
  • Consonant clusters are permitted mostly in initial and medial positions. There are no clusters in final position.
  Labiodental Glottal
Stops plain voiceless
p
 
t
ʈ
c
k
 
  voiced
b
 
d
ɖ
ɟ
g
 
  aspirated plain
 
ʈʰ
 
voiced
ɖʰ
ɟʰ
Fricatives  
f
 
ʂ
ç
 
h
Nasals
m
 
n
ɳ
ɲ
ŋ
 
Tap    
ɾ
       
Laterals    
l
ɭ
 
     
Approximants  
ʋ
.xx  
j
   
  • /ʈ, ɖ, ʂ, ɳ, ɭ/ are retroflex consonants with no equivalents in English
  • /c, ɟ/ have no equivalents in English
  • /ʂ, ç/ have no equivalents in English
  • /ɲ/ = first n in canyon
  • /ŋ/ = ng in song
  • /ʋ/ has no equivalent in English
  • /j/ = y in yet

Stress
Stress in modern Telugu is fixed on the first syllable of a word.

Grammar
Like other Dravidian languages, Telugu is agglutinative, i.e., it adds suffixes to roots, one after another, to form words and to express grammatical functions. There is no absolute limit on the length and extent of agglutination in Telugu. This can result in very long words. Like all agglutinative languages, Telugu uses post-positions rather than prepositions.

Nouns
This class of words includes common nouns, proper names, pronouns and adjectives. They are inflected for the following categories:

  • cases: nominativeaccusativelocative, and vocative.
  • two numbers: singular and plural.
  • three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter.
  • five declensions
  • absence of articles
  • Personal pronouns are marked for person, case and number. Gender is marked only in the third person singular.
  • 1st person plural can be inclusive, i.e., include both speaker and addressee, e.g., manamu ‘we inclusive’ or exclusive, i.e., exclude addressee, e.g., mēmu ’we exclusive.’
  • 3rd person plural pronoun is used as a respectful form of address
  • Demonstrative pronouns are differentiated by considerations of proximity/remoteness as well as by levels of respect towards the referent.
  • Adjectives are not inflected for number, gender, or case.

Verbs
Telugu verbs consist of a root followed by various suffixes indicating mood, tense, causality, negation, person, number and gender which follow each other in a prescribed sequence. Verbs agree with their subjects in gender, number and person. Subject pronouns are normally dropped since the information about the subject is carried by the verb itself. Verbs have the following distinguishing features:

  • two numbers: singular and plural
  • three genders: masculine, feminine, neuter
  • three persons: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
  • two voices which are not equivalent to the active-passive or reflexive-nonreflexive division of voices in Indo-European languages
  • three simple tenses (present, past, and future) marked by simple suffixes, and a series of perfectives marked by auxiliary verbs
  • a special verb paradigm in which a negative-tense marker is suffixed to the verb stem forming a negative tense
  • four moods which indicate whether the action of the verb is unreal, possible, potential, or real
  • transitivity and intransitivity
  • attitude expressed by auxiliary verbs to show the speaker’s feelings towards an event expressed by the verb, e.g., pejorative opinion, antipathy, relief, etc.

Word order
The standard word order in Telugu is Subject-Object-Verb. However, other orders are possible because Inflectional endings take care of keeping clear grammatical relations and roles in the sentence. There are special markers for topic (what the sentence is about, or old information) and focus (new information). Constituents with old information precede constituents with new information, or those that carry most emphasis. Modifiers usually precede the words they modify.

Vocabulary
The basic vocabulary of Telugu is Dravidian in nature. In addition, Telugu has a significant number of words of Sanskrit and Prakrit origin. It is considered to be the most Sanskritized of the Dravidian languages, especially when it comes to the formal, standardized variety of the language taught in schools and used by the government and in Hindu religious practices. Colloquial Telugu varies depending upon region and social status. Thus, urban varieties of Telugu as spoken, for instance, in Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh, and used in popular movies, have many borrowings from HindiUrdu, and English. The speech of educated speakers is characterized by code-switching between Telugu and English.

Like other Dravidian languages, Telugu also uses compounding and reduplication to form new words.

Below are a few Telugu words and phrases in romanization.

Hello. Namaskaaram.
Good bye Vastamu
Thank you. Dhanyavaadaalu.
Please Daya chesi.
Sorry. Khamintsandi.
Yes Avunu.
No. Ledu.

Below are Telugu numerals 1-10.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
okați
rendhu
múdhu
nálugu
aidhu
áru
yédhu
yenimidi
tommidhi
padhi

Writing

Written materials in Telugu date from 633 AD. Telugu literature begins with an 11th-century translation of the Sanskrit classic Mahabharata. Until the second half of the 20th century, Telugu was written in a classical style that was very different from the spoken Language. During the second half of the 20th century, a new written standard emerged based on modern spoken Telugu.

Telugu is written with a syllabic alphabet in which all consonants have an inherent vowel. Diacritics, which can appear above, below, before or after the consonant, indicate change to another vowel or suppression of the inherent vowel. The script was developed from the Brahmi script. The shapes of Telugu letters closely resemble those of Kannada. They have rounded shapes because in ancient times writing was done by carving on palm leaves with a sharp point. Sharp angles would have torn the leaves. Telugu is written from left to right.

Below is a sample of Telugu script

Friday, 04 October 2013 15:26

Famous Personalities

Poets[edit]

Royalty[edit]

Journalists[edit]

Music composers[edit]

Religious leaders and philosophers[edit]

Warriors, martyrs and freedom fighters[edit]

Scientists[edit]

Writers[edit]

Artists[edit]

Academia and science[edit]

Award winners[edit]

Bharat Ratna

Padma Vibhushan

Padmabhushan

Jnanpith Award[edit]

Sahitya Akademi Award[edit]

Dada Saheb Phalke award[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award

Arjuna Award

Politicians[edit]

French Yanam[edit]

Modern writers[edit]

Business[edit]

Sports[edit]

Movies[edit]

Friday, 04 October 2013 15:21

Samethalu

Telugu Saamethalu - Telugu Proverbs 

  Endaro Mahaanubhaavulu 
  Andarikee Maa Vandanaalu 
  And Welcome to TeluguWebsite.com
   World's first Encyclopedia of Telugu

 


Note : Some proverbs are not relevant today and some others may not be true.


6 nelalu saavaasam chaestae vaaru veeru avuthaaru.

Aa moddhu lodhae ee paedu.

Aa thaanu mukkae !!!

Aadaboina theerthamu yedurainatlu.

Aadalaeka madhdhela voadu annatlu. 

Aadi lonae hamsa paadhu.

Aemi laeni polo ralph lauren yedaarilo aamudamu chettae mahaa vrukshamu.

Aakali ruchi yeragadhu, nidhra sukham yeraghadhu.

Aakaasaaniki hadhdhae laedhu.

Aalasyam amrutham visham.

Aalu laedhu, choolu laedhu, koduku paeru somalingam.

Aarae dheepaaniki velugu yekkuva.

Aarogyamae mahaabhaagyamu.

Aathraaniki buddhi mattu.

Aavalinthaku anna unnadu kaani, thummuku thammudu laedanta. 

Aavu chaenu maestae, dooda gattu maesthundaa?

Abadhdhamu aadina athikinatlu undali.

Abyaasamu koosu vidya.

Adagandhae ammainaa annam pettadhu.

Addaalu naadu biddalu kaani, gaddalu naadu kaadhu.

Adigae vaadiki cheppaevaadu lokuva.

Ae endaku aa godugu.

Agadthalo padda pilliki adae vaikuntamu.

Agniki vaayuvu thodainatlu. 

Aishwaryamu vastae artha raathri godugu pattamanaevaadu.

Andhani mraanipandlaku arrula chaachuta.

Andithe siga andhaka pothe kaallu.

Angatlo annee unnaa, alludi notlu seni unnatlu.

Annapu choravae gaani aksharapu chorava laedhu.

Anthya nistooram kanna aadi nistooram maelu.

Appu chaesi pappu koodu.

Athi rahasyam batta bayalu.

Ayithe aadivaaramu, kaakunte somavaaramu.

Ayya vachhae varaku amaavaasya aaguthundha ???

Ayyavaarini cheyyabothae kothi ayyinattlu.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com
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Bathikuntae balusaaku thinavachhu.

Bellam Kottina Raayila.

Bhakthi laeni pooja pathri chaetu.

Boodidhalo posina panneeru.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Chaadasthapu mogudu chebithae vinadu, gillithae yaedusthaadu.

Chaapa kindha neerula.

Chachhinavaani kandlu chaaredu.

Chadhuvavaesthae unnamathi poyinadhi.

Chaduvu raani vaadu vintha pasuvu.

Chaethakaanammake chaestalu ekkuva.

Chaethulu kaalinaaka aakulu pattukunnatlu.

Chakkanamma chikkinaa andame.

Chedapakuraa, chedaevu.

Cheekati konnallu, velugu konnallu.

Cherapakuraa chededhavu, urakakuraa padedhavu.

Cheruvuki neeti aasa, neetiki cheruvu aasa.

Cheviti vaadi chevilo sankham oodhinatlu.

Chintha chachchinaa pulupu chaava laedhu.

Chinthakaayalu ammaedhaaniki sirimaanam vasthae, aa vankara tinkaravi yaemi kaayalani adugutundhata.

Chiviki chiviki gaalivaana ayinatlu.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Dabbuku lokam daasoham.

Daevudu varam ichhina poojaari varam ivvadu.

Daridrudi pelliki vadagalla vaana.

Daasuni thappu dandamu tho sari.

Deyyaalu vaedaalu palikinatlu.

Dikku laeni vaadiki daevudae dikku.

Dongaku donga buddhi, doraku dora buddhi.

Dongaku thaelu kuttinatlu.

Doorapu kondalu nunupu.

Dunnapothu meeda varsham kurisinatlu.

Duraasa dukhkhamu chetu.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com
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Eethaku minchina lothe laedhu.

Evariki vaare yamunaa theerae.

Evaru theesukunna gothilo vaarae padathaaru.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com



Gaadidha sangeetaaniki vonte aascharyapadithae, vonte andhaaniki gaadidha moorcha poyindata.

Gaajula baeramu bhojanaananiki sari.

Ganthaku thagga bontha.

Gathi laenammaku ganjae paanakamu.

Goaru chuttu meeda roakali poatu.

Gonthemma koarikalu.

Gruddi kanna mella maelu.

Gruddi yeddhu jonna chaelo padinatlu.

Gruddu vachhi pillanu vekkirinchinatlu.

Gudi mingae vaadiki nandhi pindimiriyam.

Gudini, gudilo linganni, minginatlu.

Gudla meedha kodipetta valae.

Gummadi kaayala donga antae bhujaalu thadumukonnadata.

Gurramu gruddi dainaa, daanaalo thakkuva laedhu.

Guruvuku panganaamaalu pettinatlu.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Inta gelichi rachha geluvu.

Inta thini, inti vaasaalu lekkhapettinatlu.

Inti donganu eeshwarudaina pattalaedu.

Inti paeru kasturivaaru; intilo gabbilaala kampu.

Intikanna gudi badhramu.

Isuka thakkeda paeda thakkeda.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Jogi-Jogi raajukunte raaledhi boodidhae.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com
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Kaachina chettukae raalla dhebbalu. Kaagala kaaryamu gandharvulae theerchinatlu.

Kaaki mukkuku dhonda pandu.

Kaaki pilla kaakiki muddhu.

Kaalam kalisi raaka pothae, karrae paamai kaatu vaesthundhi.

Kaalu jaarithe theesukogalamu kaani, noru jaarithe theesukogalama!

Kaasu untae maargamuntadi.

Kadupu chinchukuntae kaallapai paddatlu.

Kalakaalapu donga okanaadu dorukunu.

Kalimi laemulu kaavadi kundalu.

Kalisi vacchae kaalam vasthae, nadichi vacchae koduku pudathaadu.

Kanchae chaenu maesinatlu.

Kanchu mrogunatlu kanakambu mrogunaa!

Kandaku laeni dhuradha kaththi peeta kenduku ?

Kandhaku kaththi peeta lokuva.

Kandhena vaeyani bandiki kaavaalsinantha sangeetham.

Karavamantae kappaku kopam, vidavamantae paamuku kopam.

Keedenchi maelenchamannaru.

Konda naalikaki mandhu vaesthae, unna naalika oodinatlu.

kondallae vacchina aapadha kooda manchuvalae kariginatlu.

Kondanu thovvi yaelukanu pattinatlu.

Konna daggira kosaru gaani, korina dhaggara kosuraa ??

Koosae gaadidha vachhi maesae gaadhidhanu cherachindhata.

Kooti kosam koti vidyalu.

Kootiki paedhaithae kulaaniki paedhaa ?

Korivitho thala gokkunnatlu.

Kothi pundu brahma raakashasi.

Kothiki kobbari chippa ichchinatlu.

Koththoka vintha-paathoka rotha.

Koti vidyalu kooti korake.

Kottha appuku pothe paatha appu bayatapaddadhata.                       Goto TopTop 

Kottha bhicchagaadu poddhu yeragadu.

Krushito naasti durbhiksham.

Kshethra merigi vitthanamu, paathra maerigi daanamu.

Kudumu chaethikisthae pandaga anaevaadu.

Kukka kaatuku cheppu dhebba.

Kukka vasthae raayi dhorakadhu, raayi dhorikithae kukka raadhu.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Laeni daatha kantae unna lobhi nayam.

Loguttu perumaallaku eruka.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com



Merisaedantaa bangaaram kaadhu.

Manchamunnantha varaku kaallu chaachukho.

Manchimaataku mandhi anthaa manavallae.

Mandhi yekkuva ayithae majjiga palachana ayinatlu.

Manishi marmamu, maani chaeva bayataku theliyavu.

Manishi paedha ayithae maataku paedhaa??

Manishiki maatae alankaram.

Manishikoka maata-goddukoka dhebba.

Manishikoka thegulu mahilo vaema annaaru.

Manthraalaku chinthakaayalu raalavu.

Mee bodi sampaadhanaku iddharu pellaala ?

Meththagaa untae moththa budhdhi ayyindhata.

Mokkai vonganidhi maanai vongunaa.

Morigae kukka karavadhu.

Mosaevaaniki thelusu kaavadi baruvu.

Mullunu mulluthonae theeyaali, vajraanni vajram thonae koyyali.

Mundaa kaadhu, mutthaidhuvaa kaadhu.

Mundhara kaallaki bandhaalu vaesinatlu.

Mundhuku pothe goyyi-venukaku pothe nuyyi.

Munjaeti kankanamuku addhamu yendhuku?

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com
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Nadumanthrapu siri, naraala meedha pundu.

Naethi beerakaayalo neyyi yentha undho, nee maatalo anthae nijam undhi.

Nakkaki naagalokaaniki unnantha thaeda.

Navvu naalugu vidhaala chaetu.

Nee chevulaku raagi pogulae antae avee neeku laevae annatlu.

Nidhaanamae pradhaanam.

Nijam nippu laantidi.

Nimmaku neeru yeththinatlu.

Nindu kunda thonakadhu.

Nippu muttanidhi chaeyi kaaladhu.

Nooru godlu thinna raabandhukaina okatae gaalipettu.

Nooru gurralaku adhikaari, inta bhaaryaku yendu poori.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Oka voralo rendu kaththulu imadavu.

Oopiri untae uppu ammukoni brathakavacchu.

Ooranthaa chuttaalu, uttikatta thaavu laedhu.

Ooru moham godalu cheputhaayi.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com



Paaki daanito sarasam kantae attaru saayibu too kalaham maelu.

Paamu kaallu paamuna keruka.

Paanakamulo pudaka.

Paapamani paatha cheera isthae goda chaatuku velli moora vaesindhata.

Pachcha kaamerla vachchina vaadiki lokam anthaa pachchagaa kanapadinatlu.

Panditha putra - parama suntta.

Panilaeni mangalodu pilli thala gorigadanta.

Parigeththi paalu taagae kantae nilabadi neellu thaagadam maelu.

Pattipatti panganaamam pedithae goda chaatuku velli cheripi vaesukunnadata.

Pedhima dhaatithae penna dhaatunu.

Pelli antae nooraella panta.

Pelliki veluthoo pillini chankana pettuku vellinattu.

Penuku pettanamiste tala anta korikindata.

Perugu thota kooralo perugu yentha undho nee maatalo anthae nijam undhi.

Picchi koathiki thaelu kuttinatlu.

Pichhodi chaetulo raayila.

Pichhuka meedha brahmaastramu.

Pilli saepaalaku uttlu theghutahaaya?

Pilliki chelagaatamu, yaelukakau praana sankatamu.

Pindi koddhi rotte.

Pitta konchemu kootha ghanamu. 

Poaru nastamu pondhu laabhamu.

Poraani chotlaku pothae raaraani maatlu raakapovu.

Porlinchi porlinchi kottina meesaalaku mannu kaalaedhannadata.

Punyam koddhi purushudu, daanam koddhi biddalu.

Puvvu puttagaane parimalinchunu.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Raaju gaari divaanamu lo chaakalodi peththanamu.

Raamayanamulo pidakala vaeta.

Ramayanam anthaa vini sita ramuduki yaemouthundhi ani adigaadanta.

Rameshwaram vellina senaeswaram vadhalanatlu.

Reddi vacchae modhalu aadae.

Rotte virigi naethilo paddatlu.

Routhu koddhee gurramu.

Runa saeshamu, sethru saeshamu uncharaadhu.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Sangeetaaniki chinthakaayalu raaluthaaya.

Sankalo pillodini unchukoni oorantha vethikinattu.

Santhoshamae sagam balam.

Siggu vidisthae srirangamae.

Singadu addhanki ponu poyyadu raanu vacchaadu.

Sivuni aagna laekha cheemaina kuttadhu.

Subham palakaraa yenkanna antae pelli kuthuru munda ekkada annaadanta!

Swaasa undaevaraku aasa untundhi.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com
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Thaa chedda kothi vanamaella jherachindhata.

Thaadi thannu vaani thala thannu vaaru undunu.

Thaalibottu balamu valla thalambraala varaku bathikaadu.

Thaanu pattina kundhaeluku moodae kaallu.

Thaataaku chappullaku kundhaellu bhedhurunaa?

Thaathaku dhaggulu naerputa.

Thaeluku paetthanamisthe thellavaarluu kuttindhata.

Thana kopamae thana satruvu.

Thannu maalina dharmamu-modhalu chedda baeramu.

Thanthae gaarela buttalo paddatlu.

Thappulu vedhikae vaadu thandri oppulu vedikaevaadu vorvalaenivaadu.

Theega laagithae donka anthaa kadhilinatlu.

Thegaedhaaka laagavadhdhu.

Thikkalodu thiranaallaku velithae ekka dhiga saripoyindhanta. 

Thinae mundhu ruchi adugaku, vinae mundhu katha adugaku.

Thinaga thinaga gaarelu chaedu.

Thinte gaarelu thinaali, vinte bhaaratam vinaali.

Thiyyati thaena nindina notithonae thaenateega kuttaedhi.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Ulli chaesina maelu thalli kooda chaeyadhu.

Upakaaraaniki poathe apakaaramedurainatlu.

Urumu urumi mangalam meedha paddatlu.

Uttikekkalaenamma swargaanikekkuna???

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com

Vaapunu choosi balamu anukunnadata.

Veepumeedha kottavachhu kaani kadupu meedha kottaraadhu.

Verri veyyi vidhaalu.

Vinaasa kaalae vipareetha budhdhi.

For more proverbs, read Saamethalu.com


Yae endaku aan godugu.

Yae gaaliki aa chaapa.

Yeddhu pundu kaakiki muddhu.

Yaekulu pedithae buttalu chirugunaa?

Yekkadaina bhaava kaani vanga thota dhaggara maathramu kaadhu.

Yeppudoo aadambaramugaa palikae vaadu alpudu
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